Archives de catégorie : Vapeur_Vapor

Analyse de la composition de la vapeur ou des liquides
Analysis of the vapor or e-liquids composition

Nicotine Levels and Presence of Selected Tobacco-Derived Toxins in Tobacco Flavoured Electronic Cigarette Refill Liquids

Some electronic cigarette (EC) liquids of tobacco flavour contain extracts of cured tobacco leaves produced by a process of solvent extraction and steeping. These are commonly called Natural Extract of Tobacco (NET) liquids. The purpose of the study was to evaluate nicotine levels and the presence of tobacco-derived toxins in tobacco-flavoured conventional and NET liquids.

Published: 24 March 2015

Positive: Yes

Link to publication: http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/12/4/3439

Link to press release: http://www.ecigarette-research.org/research/index.php/research/research-2015/195-ecig-net

Authors

Konstantinos E. Farsalinos
I. Gene Gillman
Matt S. Melvin
Amelia R. Paolantonio
Wendy J. Gardow
Kathy E. Humphries
Sherri E. Brown
Konstantinos Poulas
Vassilis Voudris


Summary

Methods. Twenty-one samples (10 conventional and 11 NET liquids) were obtained from the US and Greek market. Nicotine levels were measured and compared with labelled values. The levels of tobacco-derived chemicals were compared with literature data on tobacco products.

Results. Twelve samples had nicotine levels within 10% of the labelled value. Inconsistency ranged from −21% to 22.1%, with no difference observed between conventional and NET liquids. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) were present in all samples at ng/mL levels. Nitrates were present almost exclusively in NET liquids. Acetaldehyde was present predominantly in conventional liquids while formaldehyde was detected in almost all EC liquids at trace levels. Phenols were present in trace amounts, mostly in NET liquids. Total TSNAs and nitrate, which are derived from the tobacco plant, were present at levels 200–300 times lower in 1 mL of NET liquids compared to 1 gram of tobacco products.


 

Conclusions

NET liquids contained higher levels of phenols and nitrates, but lower levels of acetaldehyde compared to conventional EC liquids. The lower levels of tobacco-derived toxins found in NET liquids compared to tobacco products indicate that the extraction process used to make these products did not transfer a significant amount of toxins to the NET. Overall, all EC liquids contained far lower (by 2–3 orders of magnitude) levels of the tobacco-derived toxins compared to tobacco products.

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Electronic cigarette use and harm reversal: emerging evidence in the lung

Direct confirmation that long-term EC use leads to reductions in smoking-related diseases is not available and it will take a few decades before the tobacco harm reduction potential of this products is firmly established. Nonetheless, it is feasible to detect early changes in airway function and respiratory symptoms in smokers switching to e-vapor.

Published: 18 March 2015

Positive: Yes

Link to publication: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/13/54

Authors:

Riccardo Polosa


Summary

Abstract

Electronic cigarettes (ECs) have been rapidly gaining ground on conventional cigarettes due to their efficiency in ceasing or reducing tobacco consumption, competitive prices, and the perception of them being a much less harmful smoking alternative. Direct confirmation that long-term EC use leads to reductions in smoking-related diseases is not available and it will take a few decades before the tobacco harm reduction potential of this products is firmly established. Nonetheless, it is feasible to detect early changes in airway function and respiratory symptoms in smokers switching to e-vapor. Acute investigations do not appear to support negative respiratory health outcomes in EC users and initial findings from long-term studies are supportive of a beneficial effect of EC use in relation to respiratory outcomes. The emerging evidence that EC use can reverse harm from tobacco smoking should be taken into consideration by regulatory authorities seeking to adopt proportional measures for the e-vapor category.

Keywords:

E-cigarette; E-vapor products; Harm reversal; Lung function; Respiratory system; Smoking cessation; Tobacco harm reduction

Background

The electronic cigarette (EC) has been rapidly gaining ground on conventional cigarettes and could surpass consumption of conventional cigarettes within the next decade, according to some prediction analyses [1]. The growing popularity of ECs proves that many adult smokers are keen on using an alternative technologic form of smoking to reduce cigarette consumption or quit smoking and to relieve tobacco withdrawal symptoms [2]. Data from internet surveys [2],[3] and clinical trials [4],[5] have shown that ECs may help smokers quit or reduce their tobacco consumption. Moreover, the popularity of ECs appears to be associated with the fact that they can be used in many smoke-free areas, their prices are competitive, and they are perceived as a much less harmful smoking alternative [3],[6].

Vapor toxicology under normal conditions of use is by far less problematic than that of conventional cigarettes [7], and exclusive EC users have significantly lower urine levels of tobacco smoke toxicants and carcinogens compared to cigarette smokers [8]. Thus, smokers completely switching to regular EC use are likely to gain significant health benefits.

Although a reduction in smoking-related diseases from long-term EC use can be inferred by the positive findings on Swedish snus (a tobacco harm reduction product consisting of refined oral tobacco which is low in nitrosamines) [9], direct confirmation is not available and it will take a few decades before a reduction in individual and population health outcomes due to the regular use of e-vapor products can be firmly established. Nonetheless, it is feasible to detect early changes in airway function and respiratory symptoms in smokers switching to e-vapor.

In this commentary, I discuss the emerging potential of ECs for harm reversal with a specific focus on the respiratory system.


Conclusion

Compared to combustible cigarettes, e-vapor products are at least 96% less harmful and may substantially reduce individual risk and population harm [22]. Future research will better define and further reduce residual risks from EC use to as low as possible by establishing appropriate quality control and standards. Although large longitudinal studies are warranted to elucidate whether ECs are a less harmful alternative to tobacco cigarettes and whether significant health benefits can be expected in smokers who switch from tobacco to ECs, the emerging evidence that EC use can reverse harm from tobacco smoking should be taken into consideration by regulatory authorities seeking to adopt proportional measures for the e-vapor category [23].

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Impact of Flavour Variability on Electronic Cigarette Use Experience: An Internet Survey

A major characteristic of the electronic cigarette (EC) market is the availability of a large number of different flavours. This has been criticised by the public health authorities, some of whom believe that diverse flavours will attract young users and that ECs are a gateway to smoking.

Published: 17 December 2013

Positive: Yes

Link to publication: http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/10/12/7272

Authors:

Konstantinos E. Farsalinos
Giorgio Romagna
Dimitris Tsiapras
Stamatis Kyrzopoulos
Alketa Spyrou
Vassilis Voudris


Summary

Background: A major characteristic of the electronic cigarette (EC) market is the availability of a large number of different flavours. This has been criticised by the public health authorities, some of whom believe that diverse flavours will attract young users and that ECs are a gateway to smoking. At the same time, several reports in the news media mention that the main purpose of flavour marketing is to attract youngsters. The importance of flavourings and their patterns of use by EC consumers have not been adequately evaluated, therefore, the purpose of this survey was to examine and understand the impact of flavourings in the EC experience of dedicated users. Methods: A questionnaire was prepared and uploaded in an online survey tool. EC users were asked to participate irrespective of their current smoking status. Participants were divided according to their smoking status at the time of participation in two subgroups: former smokers and current smokers. Results: In total, 4,618 participants were included in the analysis, with 4,515 reporting current smoking status. The vast majority (91.1%) were former smokers, while current smokers had reduced smoking consumption from 20 to 4 cigarettes per day. Both subgroups had a median smoking history of 22 years and had been using ECs for 12 months. On average they were using three different types of liquid flavours on a regular basis, with former smokers switching between flavours more frequently compared to current smokers; 69.2% of the former subgroup reported doing so on a daily basis or within the day. Fruit flavours were more popular at the time of participation, while tobacco flavours were more popular at initiation of EC use. On a scale from 1 (not at all important) to 5 (extremely important) participants answered that variability of flavours was “very important” (score = 4) in their effort to reduce or quit smoking. The majority reported that restricting variability will make ECs less enjoyable and more boring, while 48.5% mentioned that it would increase craving for cigarettes and 39.7% said that it would have been less likely for them to reduce or quit smoking. The number of flavours used was independently associated with smoking cessation.


Conclusions

The results of this survey of dedicated users indicate that flavours are marketed in order to satisfy vapers’ demand. They appear to contribute to both perceived pleasure and the effort to reduce cigarette consumption or quit smoking. Due to the fact that adoption of ECs by youngsters is currently minimal, it seems that implementing regulatory restrictions to flavours could cause harm to current vapers while no public health benefits would be observed in youngsters. Therefore, flavours variability should be maintained; any potential future risk for youngsters being attracted to ECs can be sufficiently minimized by strictly prohibiting EC sales in this population group.

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Harmful effects of nicotine

With the advent of nicotine replacement therapy, the consumption of the nicotine is on the rise. Nicotine is considered to be a safer alternative of tobacco. The IARC monograph has not included nicotine as a carcinogen. However there are various studies which show otherwise. We undertook this review to specifically evaluate the effects of nicotine on the various organ systems.

Published: 19 February 2015

Positive :  No

Link to publication: http://www.ijmpo.org/article.asp?issn=0971-5851%3Byear%3D2015%3Bvolume%3D36%3Bissue%3D1%3Bspage%3D24%3Bepage%3D31%3Baulast%3DMishra

Authors:

Aseem Mishra
Pankaj Chaturvedi
Sourav Datta
Snita Sinukumar
Poonam Joshi
Apurva Garg


Summary

With the advent of nicotine replacement therapy, the consumption of the nicotine is on the rise. Nicotine is considered to be a safer alternative of tobacco. The IARC monograph has not included nicotine as a carcinogen. However there are various studies which show otherwise. We undertook this review to specifically evaluate the effects of nicotine on the various organ systems. A computer aided search of the Medline and PubMed database was done using a combination of the keywords. All the animal and human studies investigating only the role of nicotine were included. Nicotine poses several health hazards. There is an increased risk of cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal disorders. There is decreased immune response and it also poses ill impacts on the reproductive health. It affects the cell proliferation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, DNA mutation by various mechanisms which leads to cancer. It also affects the tumor proliferation and metastasis and causes resistance to chemo and radio therapeutic agents. The use of nicotine needs regulation. The sale of nicotine should be under supervision of trained medical personnel.


Conclusion

Nicotine is the fundamental cause of addiction among tobacco users. Nicotine adversely affects many organs as shown in human and animal studies. Its biological effects are widespread and extend to all systems of the body including cardiovascular, respiratory, renal and reproductive systems. Nicotine has also been found to be carcinogenic in several studies. It promotes tumorigenesis by affecting cell proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptotic pathways. It causes resistance to the chemotherapeutic agents. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is an effective adjunct in management of withdrawal symptoms and improves the success of cessation programs. Any substantive beneficial effect of nicotine on human body is yet to be proven. Nicotine should be used only under supervision of trained cessation personnel therefore its sale needs to be strictly regulated. Needless to say, that research for safer alternative to nicotine must be taken on priority.

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Comparison of select analytes in aerosol from e-cigarettes with smoke from conventional cigarettes and with ambient air

Highlights

• The e-cigarettes contained and delivered mostly glycerin and/or PG and water.
• Aerosol nicotine content was 85% lower than the cigarette smoke nicotine.
• The levels of HPHCs in aerosol were consistent with the air blanks (<2 μg/puff).
• Mainstream cigarette smoke HPHCs (∼3000 μg/puff) were 1500 times higher than e-cigarette HPHCs.
• No significant contribution of tested HPHC classes was found for the e-cigarettes.

Published: 24 October 2014

Positive: Yes

Link to publication: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273230014002505

Authors:

Rana Tayyarah
Gerald A. Long

Remarks: From Lorillard tobacco company


Summary

Leading commercial electronic cigarettes were tested to determine  bulk composition. The e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes were evaluated using machine-puffing to compare nicotine delivery and relative yields of chemical constituents. The e-liquids tested were found to contain humectants, glycerin and/or propylene glycol, (⩾75% content); water (<20%); nicotine (approximately 2%); and flavor (<10%). The aerosol collected mass (ACM) of the e-cigarette samples was similar in composition to the e-liquids. Aerosol nicotine for the e-cigarette samples was 85% lower than nicotine yield for the conventional cigarettes. Analysis of the smoke from conventional cigarettes showed that the mainstream cigarette smoke delivered approximately 1500 times more harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) tested when compared to e-cigarette aerosol or to puffing room air. The deliveries of HPHCs tested for these e-cigarette products were similar to the study air blanks rather than to deliveries from conventional cigarettes; no significant contribution of cigarette smoke HPHCs from any of the compound classes tested was found for the e-cigarettes. Thus, the results of this study support previous researchers’ discussion of e-cigarette products’ potential for reduced exposure compared to cigarette smoke.


Conclusion

The purpose of this study was to determine content and delivery of e-cigarette ingredients and to compare e-cigarette aerosol to conventional cigarettes with respect to select HPHCs for which conventional cigarette smoke is routinely tested. Routine analytical methods were adapted and verified for e-cigarette testing. Aerosol collection was conducted using conventional smoking machines and an intense puffing regime. As machine puffing cannot, and is not intended to, mimic human puffing, results of this study are limited to the scope of the comparisons made between the e-cigarette and conventional cigarette products tested.

The main ingredients for the e-cigarettes tested were consistent with disclosed ingredients: glycerin and/or propylene glycol (⩾75%), water (⩽18%), and nicotine (∼2%). Machine-puffing of these products under a standardized intense regime indicated a direct transfer of these ingredients to the aerosol while maintaining an aerosol composition similar to the e-liquid. Nicotine yields to the aerosol were approximately 30 μg/puff or less for the e-cigarette samples and were 85% lower than the approximately 200 μg/puff from the conventional cigarettes tested.

Testing of the e-cigarette aerosol indicates little or no detectable levels of the HPHC constituents tested. Overall the cigarettes yielded approximately 3000 μg/puff of the HPHCs tested while the e-cigarettes and the air blanks yielded <2 μg. Small but measurable quantities of 5 of the 55 HPHCs tested were found in three of the e-cigarette aerosol samples at 50–900 times lower levels than measurable in the cigarette smoke samples. Overall, the deliveries of HPHCs tested for the e-cigarette products tested were more like the study air blanks than the deliveries for the conventional cigarettes tested. Though products tested, collection parameters, and analytical methods are not in common between this study and others, the results are very consistent. Researchers have reported that most or all of the HPHCs tested were not detected or were at trace levels. Burstyn (2014) used data from approximately 50 studies to estimate e-cigarette exposures compared to workplace threshold limit values (TLV) based on 150 puffs taken over 8 h. The vast majority of the analytes were estimated as ≪1% of TLV and select carbonyls were estimated as <5% of TLV. Cheng (2014) reviewed 29 publications reporting no to very low levels of select HPHCs relative to combustible cigarettes, while noting that some of the tested products exhibited considerable variability in their composition and yield. Goniewicz et al. (2014) tested a range of commercial products and reported quantifiable levels for select HPHCs in e-cigarette aerosols at 9- to 450-fold lower levels than those in cigarette smoke that in some instances were on the order of levels determined for the study reference (a medicinal nicotine inhaler). Laugesen, 2009 and Theophilus et al., 2014 have presented results for commercial e-cigarette product liquids and aerosols having no quantifiable levels of tested HPHCs, or extremely low levels of measurable constituents relative to cigarette smoke. Additionally, findings from several recent studies indicate that short-term use of e-cigarettes by adult smokers is generally well-tolerated, with significant adverse events reported relatively rarely (Etter, 2010, Polosa et al., 2011, Polosa et al., 2014, Caponnetto et al., 2013, Dawkins and Corcoran, 2014 and Hajek et al., 2014). Thus, the results obtained in the aforementioned studies and in the present work broadly support the potential for e-cigarette products to provide markedly reduced exposures to hazardous and potentially hazardous smoke constituents in smokers who use such products as an alternative to cigarettes.

Additional research related to e-cigarette aerosol characterization is warranted. For example, continued characterization of major components and flavors is needed. Establishment of standardized puffing regimes and reference products would greatly aid sharing of knowledge between researchers. Continued methods’ refinement may be necessary for improved accuracy for quantitation of analytes at the low levels determined in this study. To that end, it is critical that negative controls and steps to avoid sample contamination be included when characterizing e-cigarette aerosol since analytes are on the order of what has been measured in the background levels of a laboratory setting. Though researchers have reported quantification of select analytes, great care must be taken when interpreting results at such trace levels.

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Hidden Formaldehyde in E-Cigarette Aerosols

Not a study per se, but a letter to the editor of the NEJM. This letter has been totally debunked, and is proved to have no value whatsoever (except for mouses who vape).

Published: 22 January 2015

Positive: No

Link to publication: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc1413069

Comment from the author: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/27/opinion/joe-nocera-is-vaping-worse-than-smoking.html?_r=0

Comment from Clive Bates: http://www.clivebates.com/?p=2706

Comment from Dr Farsalinos: http://www.ecigarette-research.org/research/index.php/whats-new/whatsnew-2015/191-form-nejm

Comment from Dr Michael Siegel: http://tobaccoanalysis.blogspot.be/2015/01/new-study-reports-high-levels-of.html

Comment from Pr Hajek: http://www.sciencemediacentre.co.nz/2015/01/22/formaldehyde-in-e-cigarettes-expert-responds/

Comment from Pr Dautzenberg (in French): http://www.sciencesetavenir.fr/sante/20150126.OBS0840/e-cigarette-ce-n-est-pas-une-etude-c-est-une-lettre-torchon.html

Authors:

R. Paul Jensen, B.S.
Wentai Luo, Ph.D.
James F. Pankow, Ph.D.
Robert M. Strongin, Ph.D.
David H. Peyton, Ph.D.


Letter

To the Editor:

E-cigarette liquids are typically solutions of propylene glycol, glycerol, or both, plus nicotine and flavorant chemicals. We have observed that formaldehyde-containing hemiacetals, shown by others to be entities that are detectable by means of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy,1 can be formed during the e-cigarette “vaping” process. Formaldehyde is a known degradation product of propylene glycol that reacts with propylene glycol and glycerol during vaporization to produce hemiacetals. These molecules are known formaldehyde-releasing agents that are used as industrial biocides.5 In many samples of the particulate matter (i.e., the aerosol) in “vaped” e-cigarettes, more than 2% of the total solvent molecules have converted to formaldehyde-releasing agents, reaching concentrations higher than concentrations of nicotine. This happens when propylene glycol and glycerol are heated in the presence of oxygen to temperatures reached by commercially available e-cigarettes operating at high voltage. How formaldehyde-releasing agents behave in the respiratory tract is unknown, but formaldehyde is an International Agency for Research on Cancer group 1 carcinogen.4

Here we present results of an analysis of commercial e-liquid vaporized with the use of a “tank system” e-cigarette featuring a variable-voltage battery. The aerosolized liquid was collected in an NMR spectroscopy tube (10 50-ml puffs over 5 minutes; 3 to 4 seconds per puff). With each puff, 5 to 11 mg of e-liquid was consumed, and 2 to 6 mg of liquid was collected. At low voltage (3.3 V), we did not detect the formation of any formaldehyde-releasing agents (estimated limit of detection, approximately 0.1 μg per 10 puffs). At high voltage (5.0 V), a mean (±SE) of 380±90 μg per sample (10 puffs) of formaldehyde was detected as formaldehyde-releasing agents. Extrapolating from the results at high voltage, an e-cigarette user vaping at a rate of 3 ml per day would inhale 14.4±3.3 mg of formaldehyde per day in formaldehyde-releasing agents. This estimate is conservative because we did not collect all of the aerosolized liquid, nor did we collect any gas-phase formaldehyde. One estimate of the average delivery of formaldehyde from conventional cigarettes is approximately 150 μg per cigarette,3 or 3 mg per pack of 20 cigarettes. Daily exposures of formaldehyde associated with cigarettes, e-cigarettes from the formaldehyde gas phase, and e-cigarettes from aerosol particles containing formaldehyde-releasing agents are shown in Figure 1.

Inhaled formaldehyde has a reported slope factor of 0.021 kg of body weight per milligram of formaldehyde per day for cancer (http://oehha.ca.gov/risk/pdf/TCDBcas061809.pdf). Among persons with a body weight of 70 kg, the incremental lifetime cancer risk associated with long-term cigarette smoking at 1 pack per day may then be estimated at 9×10−4. If we assume that inhaling formaldehyde-releasing agents carries the same risk per unit of formaldehyde as the risk associated with inhaling gaseous formaldehyde, then long-term vaping is associated with an incremental lifetime cancer risk of 4.2×10−3. This risk is 5 times as high (as compared with the risk based on the calculation of Miyake and Shibamoto shown in Figure 1), or even 15 times as high (as compared with the risk based on the calculation of Counts et al. shown in Figure 1) as the risk associated with long-term smoking. In addition, formaldehyde-releasing agents may deposit more efficiently in the respiratory tract than gaseous formaldehyde, and so they could carry a higher slope factor for cancer.

 

 

 

 

 

Vapors Produced by Electronic Cigarettes and E-Juices with Flavorings Induce Toxicity, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammatory Response in Lung Epithelial Cells and in Mouse Lung

The aerosols produced by vaporizing ENDS e-liquids exhibit oxidant reactivity suggesting oxidants or reactive oxygen species (OX/ROS) may be inhaled directly into the lung during a “vaping” session. These OX/ROS are generated through activation of the heating element which is affected by heating element status (new versus used), and occurs during the process of e-liquid vaporization.

Published: 6 February 2015

Positive: No

Link to publication: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0116732

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116732

Authors

Chad A. Lerner
Isaac K. Sundar
Hongwei Yao
Janice Gerloff
Deborah J. Ossip
Scott McIntosh
Risa Robinson
Irfan Rahman


Summary

Abstract

Oxidative stress and inflammatory response are the key events in the pathogenesis of chronic airway diseases. The consumption of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) with a variety of e-liquids/e-juices is alarmingly increasing without the unrealized potential harmful health effects. We hypothesized that electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)/e-cigs pose health concerns due to oxidative toxicity and inflammatory response in lung cells exposed to their aerosols. The aerosols produced by vaporizing ENDS e-liquids exhibit oxidant reactivity suggesting oxidants or reactive oxygen species (OX/ROS) may be inhaled directly into the lung during a “vaping” session. These OX/ROS are generated through activation of the heating element which is affected by heating element status (new versus used), and occurs during the process of e-liquid vaporization. Unvaporized e-liquids were oxidative in a manner dependent on flavor additives, while flavors containing sweet or fruit flavors were stronger oxidizers than tobacco flavors. In light of OX/ROS generated in ENDS e-liquids and aerosols, the effects of ENDS aerosols on tissues and cells of the lung were measured. Exposure of human airway epithelial cells (H292) in an air-liquid interface to ENDS aerosols from a popular device resulted in increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Furthermore, human lung fibroblasts exhibited stress and morphological change in response to treatment with ENDS/e-liquids. These cells also secrete increased IL-8 in response to a cinnamon flavored e-liquid and are susceptible to loss of cell viability by ENDS e-liquids. Finally, exposure of wild type C57BL/6J mice to aerosols produced from a popular e-cig increase pro-inflammatory cytokines and diminished lung glutathione levels which are critical in maintaining cellular redox balance. Thus, exposure to e-cig aerosols/juices incurs measurable oxidative and inflammatory responses in lung cells and tissues that could lead to unrealized health consequences.


Conclusions

In conclusion, we showed that 1) OX/ROS are generated by vaporizing ENDS/e-cig e-liquids/e-juices and are further influenced by the state of the heating element, 2) differences in OX/ROS reactivity in e-liquids prior to vaporization is associated with e-liquid flavor, 3) e-liquids can mediate effects on lung cell morphology and affect viability, 4) e-cig aerosols can modulate levels of oxidative stress and inflammation markers in both lung cells and mouse lungs, and 5) e-cig aerosols affect in vivo in lung glutathione redox physiology implicating oxidative stress. These data clearly demonstrate the lung toxicity and hazards of exposure to ENDS/e-cigarettes.

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Exposure to Electronic Cigarettes Impairs Pulmonary Anti-Bacterial and Anti-Viral Defenses in a Mouse Model

Study of mouse models for resistance to flu and pneumonia after 2 weeks being submitted to vapour 3 hours per day.

It shows that free radicals are present in the vapour, leading to reduced immunity to flu and pneumonia. But those radicals are only at a level equivalent to 1% of the one found in combustible cigarette smoke.

Published: 04 February 2015

Positive: N/A

Link to publication: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0116861#sec011

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116861

Comments from Jacques Le Houezec (in French): JLH Comments

Bernd Mayer’s point of view, with a set of studies debunking the results: http://www.bernd-mayer.com/electronic-cigarettes-airway-infections-update/

ECITA’s comments: http://www.ecita.org.uk/ecita-blog/new-study-mice-shows-remarkably-little-acute-toxicity-despite-major-methodology-problems

Authors:

Thomas E. Sussan
Sachin Gajghate
Rajesh K. Thimmulappa
Jinfang Ma
Jung-Hyun Kim
Kuladeep Sudini
Nicola Consolini
Stephania A. Cormier
Slawo Lomnicki
Farhana Hasan
Andrew Pekosz
Shyam Biswal


Summary

Electronic cigarettes (E-cigs) have experienced sharp increases in popularity over the past five years due to many factors, including aggressive marketing, increased restrictions on conventional cigarettes, and a perception that E-cigs are healthy alternatives to cigarettes. Despite this perception, studies on health effects in humans are extremely limited and in vivo animal models have not been generated. Presently, we determined that E-cig vapor contains 7×1011 free radicals per puff. To determine whether E-cig exposure impacts pulmonary responses in mice, we developed an inhalation chamber for E-cig exposure. Mice that were exposed to E-cig vapor contained serum cotinine concentrations that are comparable to human E-cig users. E-cig exposure for 2 weeks produced a significant increase in oxidative stress and moderate macrophage-mediated inflammation. Since, COPD patients are susceptible to bacterial and viral infections, we tested effects of E-cigs on immune response. Mice that were exposed to E-cig vapor showed significantly impaired pulmonary bacterial clearance, compared to air-exposed mice, following an intranasal infection with Streptococcus pneumonia. This defective bacterial clearance was partially due to reduced phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages from E-cig exposed mice. In response to Influenza A virus infection, E-cig exposed mice displayed increased lung viral titers and enhanced virus-induced illness and mortality. In summary, this study reports a murine model of E-cig exposure and demonstrates that E-cig exposure elicits impaired pulmonary anti-microbial defenses. Hence, E-cig exposure as an alternative to cigarette smoking must be rigorously tested in users for their effects on immune response and susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections.


Conclusions

In conclusion, E-cig exposure results in immunomodulatory effects that are similar to those observed after exposure to cigarette smoke. Since bacterial and viral exacerbations are major drivers of COPD disease progression, this study raises a concern that COPD patients who switch from cigarettes to E-cigs may not observe substantial improvement in their disease progression. Furthermore, popularity of E-cigs among teenagers is rapidly rising, which may lead to an emerging threat to public health with regards to recurrent bacterial or viral infections. Despite the common perception that E-cigs are safe, this study clearly demonstrates that E-cig use, even for relatively brief periods, may have significant consequences to respiratory health in an animal model; and hence, E-cigs need to be tested more rigorously, especially in susceptible populations.

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Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes

This Japanese study triggered titles such as « e-cigarettes up to ten times more carcinogens than conventional tobacco cigarette ».

Of course, the study does NOT say this at all. This is FUD at its extreme limits.  Here is the study, with the article published by Dr Farsalinos about it, and an article from Slate France denouncing the scaremongering.

Cette étude japonaise a déclenché un barrage de gros titres dans la presse, comme « la cigarette électronique dix fois plus dangereuse que le tabac ».

Il n’en est bien entendu rien. Le Dr Farsalinos, la FIVAPE ont répondu, et Slate France a même publié un article dénonçant le mensonge commis par l’AFP.

 

Published: 28 October 2014

Positive: No (debunked)

Link to publication: http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/11/11/11192/htm

Link to Dr Farsalinos article: http://www.ecigarette-research.com/web/index.php/2013-04-07-09-50-07/2014/188-frm-jp

Lien vers le communiqué de l’AIDUCE:  http://www.aiduce.org/medias-vers-un-mepris-total-de-lobjectivite/

Link to Slate France article: http://www.slate.fr/story/95171/cigarette-electronique-cancer-fausse-alerte-japonaise

Lien du communiqué de la FIVAPE (association des professionnels français de la vape): http://www.fivape.org/e-cigarette-lagence-france-presse-relaie-verite/

Link to blog post of Jacques Le Houezec: http://jlhamzer.over-blog.com/2014/11/journalisme-tourner-7-fois-sa-souris-dans-sa-main-avant-de-faire-un-copie-colle-d-une-depeche-de-l-afp.html

Authors:

Kanae Bekki

Shigehisa Uchiyama

Kazushi Ohta

Yohei Inaba

Hideki Nakagome

Naoki Kunugita

 


Summary

Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols) when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

 


Conclusion

Studies have shown that e-cigarettes emit toxic carbonyl compounds, generated from thermal decomposition. These substances can have adverse health effects; however, in most cases, the levels are lower than those in tobacco cigarette smoke. It is important to expand the research in this field, to better understand the source of carbonyls emitted from e-cigarettes and find ways to reduce them.

Continuer la lecture de Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes

Yet another study shows absence of e-cigarette toxins

lien / link : http://acsh.org/2014/11/yet-another-study-shows-absence-e-cigarette-toxins/

American Council on Science and Health

A new report in the International Journal of Research and Public Health assessed e-cigarette vapor for the presence of toxins and mutagens. Researchers used various well-characterized assays, including one for genotoxicity and mutagenicity (adverse impacts on genes and mutations) known as the Ames test, invented by long-time ACSH friend, Dr. Bruce Ames.

The study authors, led by Dr. Manoj Misra (whose 4 co-authors and himself all worked for the research labs of Lorillard Tobacco Co. in Greensboro, NC), also assayed cigarette smoke and smokeless tobacco, as well as nicotine replacement therapy patches, for those same parameters (which also included quantifying inflammatory response and cytotoxicity [cell death]).

The results showed, as any objective observer of the harm reduction scenario would expect, non-detectable levels of toxins and mutagens, etc., in the e-cigarette effluent, as well as in the NRT absorbates and the smokeless tobacco products. These results held for e-cig liquids and vapors with or without flavors or nicotine, and were about 6,000-fold less-potent than the studies on combustible cigarette smoke.

ACSH’s Dr. Gil Ross had this perspective: “As more and more science on the lack of harm expected from e-cigs and their vapor come pouring in, it will — I hope — become harder and harder for those who mindlessly or corruptly oppose this lifesaving technology to participate in their destructive chorus. Prior studies, by Drs. Farsalinos on heart cells, Goniewicz and Burstyn on chemicals in e-cig vapor (i.e. their minute quantities), as well as on the general safety of vaping, as e-cig use is called, will continue to accumulate and eventually overwhelm the nay-sayers — IF the regulators and politicians will permit it.”