Yet another study shows absence of e-cigarette toxins

lien / link : http://acsh.org/2014/11/yet-another-study-shows-absence-e-cigarette-toxins/

American Council on Science and Health

A new report in the International Journal of Research and Public Health assessed e-cigarette vapor for the presence of toxins and mutagens. Researchers used various well-characterized assays, including one for genotoxicity and mutagenicity (adverse impacts on genes and mutations) known as the Ames test, invented by long-time ACSH friend, Dr. Bruce Ames.

The study authors, led by Dr. Manoj Misra (whose 4 co-authors and himself all worked for the research labs of Lorillard Tobacco Co. in Greensboro, NC), also assayed cigarette smoke and smokeless tobacco, as well as nicotine replacement therapy patches, for those same parameters (which also included quantifying inflammatory response and cytotoxicity [cell death]).

The results showed, as any objective observer of the harm reduction scenario would expect, non-detectable levels of toxins and mutagens, etc., in the e-cigarette effluent, as well as in the NRT absorbates and the smokeless tobacco products. These results held for e-cig liquids and vapors with or without flavors or nicotine, and were about 6,000-fold less-potent than the studies on combustible cigarette smoke.

ACSH’s Dr. Gil Ross had this perspective: “As more and more science on the lack of harm expected from e-cigs and their vapor come pouring in, it will — I hope — become harder and harder for those who mindlessly or corruptly oppose this lifesaving technology to participate in their destructive chorus. Prior studies, by Drs. Farsalinos on heart cells, Goniewicz and Burstyn on chemicals in e-cig vapor (i.e. their minute quantities), as well as on the general safety of vaping, as e-cig use is called, will continue to accumulate and eventually overwhelm the nay-sayers — IF the regulators and politicians will permit it.”

Are there any bio-detoxification mechanisms in lungs? YES

http://www.ecigarette-research.com/web/index.php/research/2014/182-lung-detox

By Dr Farsalinos

Included in the response on our critique of the WHO-commissioned e-cigarette review was a section discussing about the difference between lungs and the body (the latter meant to be the digestive tract) in the bio-detoxification systems. This paragraph was copied from a paper by May and Wigand “The Right to Choose: Why Governments Should Compel the Tobacco Industry To Disclose Their Ingredients”, published in the journal Essays of Philosophy. Obviously, this issue has nothing to do with philosophy. Moreover, when I checked the full text of this manuscript, I verified that there was not a single reference to any medical literature cited to support that “chemical reactions of bio-transformation and bio-detoxification do not occur” in the lungs.

By definition, the respiratory tract is one of 3 possible pathways through which environmental contaminants enter the body (the other two being the digestive tract and the skin). It would be a paradox if there were no defence mechanisms. In fact, there is a large array of defence mechanisms throughout the respiratory tract. An overview can be seen here, but there are many more. The lungs have established antioxidant mechanisms. For example glutathione transferases are important in the detoxification of lung carcinogens. Several other enzymatic systems are also present in the lungs, even for nitrosamines. The literature on this issue is very long (examples here, here, here and here). The lungs also have a cytochrome P450 enzymatic system (CYP), which is well known and very important for liver’s detoxification capacities. In some cases, the lung enzymatic systems may actually promote the toxicity of some chemicals rather than inhibiting it, but this is not different from other tissues.

It is true, and I have mentioned it repeatedly, that a GRAS substance for ingestion does not necessarily mean that it is safe for inhalation. However, it neither means that it is not safe. Fortunately in e-cigarettes there is no pyrolysis but heating at significantly lower temperatures. We definitely need more studies to detect whether some substances may be harmful when inhaled and if they can be avoided. However, this does not change the conclusion that e-cigarettes in their current state are by far less harmful that tobacco cigarettes.

New State Study Shows Dramatic Reduction in Youth Smoking Despite Sharp Rise in E-Cigarette Use

http://tobaccoanalysis.blogspot.fr/2014/11/new-state-study-shows-dramatic.html

From Michael Siegel

New data out of Minnesota shows that despite a marked increase in e-cigarette use among Minnesota teenagers, there was a corresponding dramatic decline in tobacco cigarette smoking.

According to the report: « The 2014 Minnesota Youth Tobacco Survey found that the percent of high school students who smoked cigarettes in the past 30 days dropped from 18.1 percent in 2011 to 10.6 percent in 2014. »

At the same time: « 12.9 percent of high school students used or tried an electronic cigarette in the past 30 days. The survey found that 28 percent of high school students reported ever having tried an e-cigarette. »

The Rest of the Story

These findings add further evidence that electronic cigarettes are not currently serving as any kind of major gateway to cigarette smoking. Despite massive levels of experimentation with electronic cigarettes, youth smoking rates are falling dramatically. This pretty much rules out the hypothesis that e-cigarettes are a major gateway to smoking.

Stan Glantz has reviewed additional evidence which documents rather dramatic increases in electronic cigarette use in the past few years, some of which is occurring among nonsmokers. However, these data actually add to the evidence that e-cigarettes are not a major gateway to smoking because they demonstrate that this experimentation, even among nonsmokers, is occurring at a time when smoking rates among youth have fallen to historic low levels.

Bottom line: There is no evidence at the current time that electronic cigarettes are serving as a gateway to smoking among youth.

Unfortunately, the lack of evidence did not stop the CDC director from proclaiming publicly that e-cigarettes are a gateway to youth smoking. And sadly, I am not aware that the director has made any sort of retraction, correction, or apology.

Meanwhile, the bogus conclusion that youth electronic cigarette use is a major risk for increased youth smoking continues to deceive policy makers throughout the country and risks the formation of inappropriate and unsupported state and federal policies regarding electronic cigarettes.

Despite all the attention to the hypothetical risks of electronic cigarettes, which so far have not been shown to pose any substantial risk to young people, the policy makers remain silent about menthol cigarettes, which – according to the Minnesota report – are currentlysmoked by 44% of youth. This is not a hypothetical risk. This is not a slight chance of progression to smoking. These are kids who are already smoking and most likely already addicted to smoking. And half of these kids who continue to smoke over a lifetime will die prematurely of this addiction.

But nobody in the anti-smoking movement seems to care. It appears that we just can’t stand hypothetical or unknown risks. But known epidemics of disease and death are just fine.

Disclosure: I have not received any funding or compensation from the tobacco, electronic cigarette, or pharmaceutical industries. However, I am seeking funding from several electronic cigarette companies to conduct a behavioral study on the effects of electronic cigarettes on smoking behavior.

About the survey here :

Cigarette use among high school students drops to 10.6 percent

Minnesota’s first e-cigarette survey finds 12.9 percent used or tried e-cigs during the past month

The 2014 Minnesota Youth Tobacco Survey found that the percent of high school students who smoked cigarettes in the past 30 days dropped from 18.1 percent in 2011 to 10.6 percent in 2014.

This decline in cigarette smoking, the steepest ever recorded by the Minnesota youth survey, follows extensive efforts to curb cigarette smoking including a 2013 tobacco tax, bans on indoor smoking, and tighter restrictions on youth access to tobacco products. Minnesota also saw declines between 2011 and 2014 in the use of chewing tobacco and cigars, according to the survey.

However, for the first time, the survey also asked about e-cigarette use and found that 12.9 percent of high school students used or tried an electronic cigarette in the past 30 days. The survey found that 28 percent of high school students reported ever having tried an e-cigarette.

« These new findings indicate that our statewide efforts to reduce and prevent conventional tobacco use among Minnesota children are working, » said Minnesota Department of Health Commissioner Dr. Ed Ehlinger. « At the same time, we are seeing a wild-west approach toward e-cigarettes, which allows tobacco companies unlimited marketing access to young men and women. This has led to increasing numbers of Minnesota high school and middle school students using e-cigarettes. »

Many young people are being exposed to nicotine, which is highly addictive, through e-cigarettes. An estimated 85,900 Minnesota public school students in grades 6-12 have tried e-cigarettes, and 38,400 reported using them in the past 30 days. Nicotine is known to harm adolescent brain development. Nearly one-fourth of high school students who have tried an e-cigarette have never tried another tobacco product.

Minnesota high school students are exposed to a wide range of e-cigarette marketing tactics previously used to sell cigarettes. More than half of high school students, 57 percent, saw e-cigarette ads on TV in the past 30 days. About half, 48 percent, saw ads in convenience stores. Students also saw e-cigarettes in ads on the Internet, magazines and billboards, and in the hands of actors in movies or on TV. Retailers have also started selling candy flavored e-cigarette products.

« I have a sense of déjà vu about e-cigarettes, » Ehlinger said. « Tobacco companies are using old and well-tested marketing techniques to introduce children to a new product that delivers nicotine and potentially leads to the burden of addiction. We need to take a hard look at what actions we can take at local and state levels to stop this trend, » Ehlinger said.

E-cigarettes are having such an impact in high schools that though the percent of high school students using any of the conventional tobacco products in the past 30 days fell from 25.8 percent in 2011 to 19.3 percent in 2014, the overall rate of tobacco use including e-cigarettes stayed about the same at 24.2 percent.

E-cigarettes are often cheap to buy, can be purchased on the Internet, and are available in an array of fruit and candy flavors. E-cigarettes are not regulated by the FDA and the overall health risks are unknown. The 2014 Minnesota Youth Tobacco Survey included many questions about new products, especially electronic cigarettes, as well as traditional conventional tobacco products. Public schools and classrooms across the state were selected at random and invited to participate. Overall, 4,243 students in grades 6 through 12 took the survey.

Minnesota youth also continued to use menthol cigarettes. Menthol masks the harshness and irritation that new smokers may feel. Nearly half of high school smokers (44.3 percent) usually smoke menthols. In contrast, only 22.0 percent of Minnesota adult smokers usually smoke menthols.

For more information on e-cigarettes, visit www.health.mn.gov/ecigarettes.

-MDH-

http://www.health.state.mn.us/news/pressrel/2014/tobacco111014.html